TY - JOUR

T1 - Strain-gradient finite elasticity solutions to rigid bar pull-out test

AU - Rezaei, Nasrin

AU - Yildizdag, M. Erden

AU - Turco, Emilio

AU - Misra, Anil

AU - Placidi, Luca

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2024.

PY - 2024/5

Y1 - 2024/5

N2 - The pull-out test is one of the common experiments to determine the bond strength. When the problem is modeled in the context of linear elasticity for a cylindrical reinforced concrete block, the resulting simplified 1-D model yields so-called pull-out paradox Rezaei et al. (Mech Res Commun 126:104015, 2022) due to extreme concentration of energy near the bar. Since the standard linear elasticity is not able to consider this high values of energy, the problem was investigated by strain-gradient elasticity solution in the work of Rezaei et al. (Mech Res Commun 126:104015, 2022). In this study, to resolve the paradoxical solution, classical finite (i.e., St.-Venant–Kirchhoff model) and strain-gradient finite elasticity solutions are presented. Each mathematical model, assuming that the material is isotropic, is derived with the principle of minimum potential energy introducing appropriate strain energy. The numerical simulations are performed by the finite element method, and it is showed that numerical solution of each model converges well.

AB - The pull-out test is one of the common experiments to determine the bond strength. When the problem is modeled in the context of linear elasticity for a cylindrical reinforced concrete block, the resulting simplified 1-D model yields so-called pull-out paradox Rezaei et al. (Mech Res Commun 126:104015, 2022) due to extreme concentration of energy near the bar. Since the standard linear elasticity is not able to consider this high values of energy, the problem was investigated by strain-gradient elasticity solution in the work of Rezaei et al. (Mech Res Commun 126:104015, 2022). In this study, to resolve the paradoxical solution, classical finite (i.e., St.-Venant–Kirchhoff model) and strain-gradient finite elasticity solutions are presented. Each mathematical model, assuming that the material is isotropic, is derived with the principle of minimum potential energy introducing appropriate strain energy. The numerical simulations are performed by the finite element method, and it is showed that numerical solution of each model converges well.

KW - Concrete

KW - Finite element method

KW - Pull-out test

KW - Strain-gradient modeling

KW - Variational methods

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85187292235&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00161-024-01285-5

DO - 10.1007/s00161-024-01285-5

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85187292235

SN - 0935-1175

VL - 36

SP - 607

EP - 617

JO - Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics

JF - Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics

IS - 3

ER -