Petrological insights into connections between the S- and I-type magmatic associations in metamorphic core complexes: a case study of the Çataldağ metamorphic core complex (NW Turkey)

Ömer Kamacı*, Şafak Altunkaynak

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As one of the Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complexes in the western Anatolian extensional province and the broader Aegean region, the Çataldağ metamorphic core complex is composed of a granite-gneiss-migmatite complex and a synkinematic pluton, bounded by a detachment fault zone. The plutonic rocks within the footwall of the Çataldağ metamorphic core complex consist of Eo-Oligocene anatectic S-type leucogranites associated with gneiss-migmatite complex forming the core rocks and an I-type synkinematic pluton that emplaced into the core rocks in the Early Miocene. This paper presents the petrography, mineral chemistry, major-trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the Çataldağ I-type synkinematic pluton. It discusses the magma source evolution from the Eo-Oligocene to the Early Miocene and their relations to the Çataldağ metamorphic core complex formation by comparing two contrasting granitic associations from a petrological perspective. The Çataldağ I-type synkinematic pluton primarily comprises porphyritic granodiorite, granite, and peripheral rocks including evolved granite and pegmatite dikes. Thermobarometry calculations estimate crystallisation conditions of approximately 795 °C at 1–2 kbar (averaging 1.5 kbar), corresponding to a shallow crustal magma chamber (⁓5 km deep). The pluton is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd values of the studied samples range from 0.70684 to 0.70772 and from −6.1 to −2.3, respectively. Pb isotopic compositions are 18.74–19.29 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.69–15.78 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 38.89–39.39 for 208Pb/204Pb. Geochemical modelling shows that a large amount of metasomatised lithospheric mantle-derived melt component (up to 70%) and a minor crustal component (<50%) contributed to the source region of the magma. The combination of isotopic data and thermodynamic modelling suggests that the compositional variations within the pluton were primarily the result of open system processes, predominantly the assimilation of crustal rocks with a dominance of fractional crystallisation. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures and trace element characteristics of I-type pluton, as well as their comparisons with those of S-type leucogranites within the Çataldağ core complex, indicate heterogeneous magma sources, evolving from crust-dominated to mantle-dominated magma from Eo-Oligocene to the early Miocene, reflecting mantle upwelling beneath NW Anatolia. We infer that the long-lived, mantle-driven Eocene plutonic activity that preceded the development of core complexes may have led to thermal weakening, melting, and crustal flow in the lower-middle crust beneath NW Anatolia, facilitating the formation of the granite-gneiss-migmatite complex during the incipient phase of extension in the Eo-Oligocene. Coinciding with the rapid exhumation of the S-type granite and migmatite complex, the formation and emplacement of I-type synkinematic pluton along the detachment fault zone of the Çataldağ core complex were developed as a result of asthenospheric upwelling driven by lithospheric removal processes. This inferred lithospheric removal was triggered by Hellenic slab rollback affecting the entire western Anatolia since the Oligocene. The transition from S- to I-type granites observed in the Çataldağ core complex and other Aegean massifs may indeed be a manifestation of the intensity or accumulation of this crustal extension.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Makale numarası107433
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - Oca 2024

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


This study was supported by the Scientific & Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-CAYDAG-109Y082), TUBITAK-2214-A International Doctorate Research Fellowship, and Istanbul Technical University (Scientific Research Projects - BAP project 36010). We would like to thank A. Ünal, G. Akıncı, and S. Akyüz for their assistance in the field study, S.C. Genç and Y. Yılmaz for their thoughtful geology and petrology reviews, and A. Kilinc for thermodynamic simulations. M. A. Oral was also helpful in preparing thin sections for petrography and mineral chemistry. We extend our gratitude to the editor, A. Polat, and reviewers X.M. Yang and O. Vanderhaeghe for their invaluable feedback. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewer whose insightful comments significantly enhanced the quality of our paper.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma KurumuTUBITAK-2214-A, TUBITAK-CAYDAG-109Y082
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi36010

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