Peridynamic differential operator for stress analysis of imperfect functionally graded porous sandwich beams based on refined zigzag theory

Merve Ermis, Mehmet Dorduncu*, Akif Kutlu

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Özet

This study focuses on the stress analysis of imperfect functionally graded porous (FGP) sandwich beams using the Peridynamic Differential Operator (PDDO) and Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT). Functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be found in diverse engineering applications since they offer smooth transitions in the mechanical properties of distinct materials, unlike traditional composite materials. Micro-voids and porosities may appear inside the FGMs due to technical challenges during the manufacturing process of such materials. Therefore, understanding the stress variations of the FG sandwich beams with porosities/micro-voids, which are called imperfect FGMs, under loads is of vital importance. In order to achieve the porous configuration in the FG structures, the modified rule of mixtures is applied to calculate the effective material properties of FGMs. The RZT is very suitable for stress analysis of laminated composites, especially for thick and moderately thick beams. It contains only four kinematic variables and eliminates the use of the shear correction factors. In this study, the equilibrium equations of the RZT are solved by means of the PDDO for the stress analysis of imperfect FG sandwich beams having uniform and non-uniform porosity distributions. The PDDO transforms the differential equations into their nonlocal form, namely integral form, providing highly accurate approximations of the derivatives. A comprehensive PDDO analysis is performed for the investigation of the influence of the material variation, and even and uneven porosity distributions on the stress variations of the imperfect FG sandwich beams. It is noted that when the FG core exhibits soft material distributions, the effect of porosity is evident. The even type porosity distribution pattern is more influential on the axial displacement and stress variations in comparison with those of the uneven type porosity distribution pattern.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)414-435
Sayfa sayısı22
DergiApplied Mathematical Modelling
Hacim133
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - Eyl 2024

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© 2024 Elsevier Inc.

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