Overview of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) and key climate response of CMIP6 DECK, historical, and scenario simulations

Øyvind Seland*, Mats Bentsen, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Toniazzo, Ada Gjermundsen, Lise Seland Graff, Jens Boldingh Debernard, Alok Kumar Gupta, Yan Chun He, Alf Kirkeväg, Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Kjetil Schanke Aas, Ingo Bethke, Yuanchao Fan, Jan Griesfeller, Alf Grini, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Inger Helene Hafsahl KarsetOskar Landgren, Johan Liakka, Kine Onsum Moseid, Aleksi Nummelin, Clemens Spensberger, Hui Tang, Zhongshi Zhang, Christoph Heinze, Trond Iversen, Michael Schulz

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Özet

The second version of the coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. NorESM2 is based on the second version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM2) and shares with CESM2 the computer code infrastructure and many Earth system model components. However, NorESM2 employs entirely different ocean and ocean biogeochemistry models. The atmosphere component of NorESM2 (CAM-Nor) includes a different module for aerosol physics and chemistry, including interactions with cloud and radiation; additionally, CAMNor includes improvements in the formulation of local dry and moist energy conservation, in local and global angular momentum conservation, and in the computations for deep convection and air-sea fluxes. The surface components of NorESM2 have minor changes in the albedo calculations and to land and sea-ice models. We present results from simulations with NorESM2 that were carried out for the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Two versions of the model are used: one with lower (∼2°) atmosphere-land resolution and one with medium (∼1°) atmosphere-land resolution. The stability of the pre-industrial climate and the sensitivity of the model to abrupt and gradual quadrupling of CO2 are assessed, along with the ability of the model to simulate the historical climate under the CMIP6 forcings. Compared to observations and reanalyses, NorESM2 represents an improvement over previous versions of NorESM in most aspects. NorESM2 appears less sensitive to greenhouse gas forcing than its predecessors, with an estimated equilibrium climate sensitivity of 2.5K in both resolutions on a 150-year time frame; however, this estimate increases with the time window and the climate sensitivity at equilibration is much higher. We also consider the model response to future scenarios as defined by selected Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) from the Scenario Model Intercomparison Project defined under CMIP6. Under the four scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5), the warming in the period 2090-2099 compared to 1850-1879 reaches 1.3, 2.2, 3.0, and 3.9K in NorESM2-LM, and 1.3, 2.1, 3.1, and 3.9K in NorESM-MM, robustly similar in both resolutions. NorESM2-LM shows a rather satisfactory evolution of recent sea-ice area. In NorESM2-LM, an ice-free Arctic Ocean is only avoided in the SSP1-2.6 scenario.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)6165-6200
Sayfa sayısı36
DergiGeoscientific Model Development
Hacim13
Basın numarası12
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 4 Ara 2020

Bibliyografik not

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Author(s).

Finansman

Acknowledgements. We thank all the scientists, software engineers, and administrators who contributed to the development of CESM2, on which NorESM2 is based. We are particularly grateful to Ce-cile Hannay, Mariana Vertenstein, Andrew Gettelmann, Jean Francois Lamarque and others for invaluable advice on numerous scientific and technical issues when using CESM code, and the support by the CESM programme directors during the NorESM2 development period. We acknowledge support from the Research Council of Norway funded projects EVA (229771), HappiEVA (261821), INES (270061), and KeyClim (295046), Horizon 2020 projects CRESCENDO (Coordinated Research in Earth Systems and Climate: Experiments, Knowledge, Dissemination and Outreach, no. 641816), APPLICATE no. 727862, IS-ENES3 no. 824084 and FORCeS no. 821205, NS Nordic project eSTICC (57001). High-performance computing and storage resources were provided by the Norwegian infrastructure for computational science (through projects NN2345K, NN9560K, NN9252K, NS2345K, NS9082K, NS9560K, NS9252K, and NS9034K) and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. The observational SLA dataset used in this work was obtained from the obs4MIPs project hosted on the Earth System Grid Federation and the original altimeter products were produced by Ssalto/Duacs and originally distributed by Aviso+, with support from CNES (https://www.aviso.altimetry.fr, last access: 2 December 2020). Monthly distributions of stratospheric sulfate aerosols were adjusted for use in NorESM by Luo Beiping at ETHZ. Financial support. This research has been supported by the H2020

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
HappiEVA261821
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
Norges Forskningsråd229771
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Engenharia de Software295046, 270061
Horizon 2020641816, 821205, 824084, 57001, 727862

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