North and equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation in the CORE-II hindcast simulations

Yu heng Tseng*, Hongyang Lin, Han ching Chen, Keith Thompson, Mats Bentsen, Claus W. Böning, Alexandra Bozec, Christophe Cassou, Eric Chassignet, Chun Hoe Chow, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Sergey Danilov, Riccardo Farneti, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Yosuke Fujii, Stephen M. Griffies, Mehmet Ilicak, Thomas Jung, Simona Masina, Antonio NavarraLavinia Patara, Bonita L. Samuels, Markus Scheinert, Dmitry Sidorenko, Chung Hsiung Sui, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Sophie Valcke, Aurore Voldoire, Qiang Wang, Steve G. Yeager

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Özet

We evaluate the mean circulation patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and Equatorial Pacific Ocean based on a suite of global ocean-sea ice simulations driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All simulations show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the Equatorial Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the equatorial transport, leading to a generally weak North Equatorial Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II equatorial wind fields. Most models show a larger interior transport of Pacific subtropical cells than the observation due to the overestimated transport in the Northern Hemisphere likely resulting from the deep pycnocline.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)143-170
Sayfa sayısı28
DergiOcean Modelling
Hacim104
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 1 Ağu 2016
Harici olarak yayınlandıEvet

Bibliyografik not

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Finansman

We thank the constructive and critical comments from Dr. Antonietta Capotondi, Dr. Billy Kessler and four anonymous reviewers, which greatly improved the manuscript. The support and help from the editor Will Perrie are also appreciated. NCAR is sponsored by the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The CESM is supported by the NSF and the U. S. Department of Energy. Y. H. Tseng was supported by the NSF Earth System Model (EaSM) Grant 1419292 (EaSM-3: Collaborative Research: Quantifying Predictability Limits, Uncertainties, Mechanisms, and Regional Impacts of Pacific Decadal Climate Variability). The AWI contribution is supported by the German Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regional Climate Change) project. The BERGEN contribution is supported by the Research Council of Norway through the EarthClim ( 207711/E10 ) and NOTUR/NorStore projects, as well as the Centre for Climate Dynamics at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research. CCLICS contribution is supported by the the National Science Council, Taiwan, under the Consortium for Climate Change Study (CCliCS) project of NSC-100-2119-M-001-029-MY5 . The CMCC contribution received funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research and the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land, and Sea under the GEMINA project. The GEOMAR integrations were performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN). L. Patara was financially supported by the Cluster of Excellence ‘The Future Ocean’ funded within the framework of the Excellence Initiative by the DFG. Finally, we thank both the international CLIVAR and U.S. CLIVAR projects for patiently sponsoring the Ocean Model Development Panel (OMDP; formally Working Groups on Ocean Model Development) over the years as COREs were developed.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
EaSM1419292
German Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM
Italian Ministry of Environment, Land
NOTUR
NSC-100-2119-M-001-029-MY5
NorStore
National Science Foundation
U.S. Department of Energy
California Department of Fish and Game
National Science Council
Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca
Norges Forskningsråd207711/E10

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