Geological, geochemical and fluid inclusion features of Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ore (Central Pontides, Turkey): Implications for their genesis

Cihan Yalçın*, Nurullah Hanilçi, Mustafa Kumral, Mustafa Kaya

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Özet

The Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ores are located in the Central Pontide orogenic belt, where Besshi-type deposits (such as Hanönü, Zeybek, Sayyayla [Kastamonu]) have been discovered in last two decades. The Göçükdibi and Kömürlükdere ores are hosted in metabasites and quartz schist that belong to the Middle Jurassic Kunduz metamorphic rocks in the accretionary complex in the Central Pontides. The ore bodies show stratiform features, parallel to schistosity, within an alternation of metabasite and quartz schist succession. The average thicknesses of the ore zone and ore levels within the ore zone are 12 m and 3 cm, respectively. The ore bodies contain chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite, with dominant pyrite formed during the ore formation phase. Meanwhile, hematite, covellite, malachite, and goethite minerals formed during the supergene processes. Microprobe studies showed that the Fe and Cd content of sphalerite varies from 0.08 to 1.12 wt%, indicating Fe-poor sphalerite, and 0.08–0.27 wt%, respectively. The Zn/Cd ratios (average 274.4 for Kömürlükdere, 288.6 for Göçükdibi) of the sphalerite are comparable to those of the worldwide volcanogenic-massive sulfide (VMS) ore system related to andesitic-basaltic source rocks. The Co/Ni ratio (mean 3.2) of pyrite shows volcanogenic pyrite. The average δ34S of the stratiform pyrites is 3.9 ‰ (ranging from 2.06 ‰ to 5.34 ‰), indicating that the sulfur comes from a large homogeneous source, possibly magmatic. The average homogenization temperature (Th) and salinity of fluid inclusions obtained from quartz and sphalerite are 313 °C and 7.7 % equiv. NaCl, respectively, and similar to those of the global VMS deposits. The metabasites contain an average of 164 ppm Cu, 127 ppm Zn, and 2.2 ppm Sb, which shows enrichment several times greater than the background value of the basalts. Meanwhile the ore levels contain an average 0.23 % and 0.83 % Cu and Zn values, respectively. The trace metal enrichment of associated metabasites and the ore zones is evident for elements such as Cu, Zn, Cd, As, and Sb, indicating that they both precipitated in the same basin as syngenetic, and that there was repeated pulses of metal-rich fluids exhaled into the basin. Field observations and analytical data (mineral chemistry, sulfur isotope, fluid inclusion, etc.) show that the Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ore bodies occurred as Besshi-type deposits within the Middle Jurassic Central Pontide Supercontinent, which developed in the marine environment appropriate to the accretionary complex located along the southern margin of Eurasia.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Makale numarası126005
DergiGeochemistry
Hacim83
Basın numarası4
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - Kas 2023

Bibliyografik not

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier GmbH

Finansman

This study is a part of a Ph-D. thesis that was prepared in the Graduate School of Science and Engineering of Istanbul University and was supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y536 . The authors would like to thank Emin Çiftçi (Istanbul Technical University) for his contribution to ore microscopy studies and M.Selman Aydoğan (Balıkesir University) for his contribution in field studies. This study is a part of a Ph-D. thesis that was prepared in the Graduate School of Science and Engineering of Istanbul University and was supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y536. The authors would like to thank Emin Çiftçi (Istanbul Technical University) for his contribution to ore microscopy studies and M.Selman Aydoğan (Balıkesir University) for his contribution in field studies.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
Balıkesir University
Istanbul Üniversitesi
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu113Y536
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

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