Formation of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluents prior to use in irrigation systems

Elif Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elisabeth L. Hawley, Rula A. Deeb, David L. Sedlak*

*Bu çalışma için yazışmadan sorumlu yazar

Araştırma sonucu: ???type-name???Makalebilirkişi

63 Atıf (Scopus)

Özet

The probable human carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is produced when wastewater effluent is disinfected with chlorine. In systems where wastewater effluent is used for landscape or crop irrigation, relatively high chlorine doses (i.e., up to 2000 mg-min/L) are often used to ensure adequate disinfection and to minimize biofouling in the irrigation system. To assess the formation of NDMA in such systems, samples were collected from several locations in full-scale wastewater treatment systems and their associated irrigation systems. Up to 460 ng/L of NDMA was produced in full-scale systems in which chloramines were formed when wastewater effluent was disinfected with chlorine in the presence of ammonia. Less than 20 ng/L of NDMA was produced in systems that used free chlorine (i.e., HOCl/OCl-) for disinfection in the absence of ammonia. The production of NDMA in ammonia-containing systems was correlated with the concentration of NDMA precursors in the wastewater effluent and the overall dose of chlorine applied. Much of the NDMA formation occurred in chlorine contact basins or in storage basins where water that contained chloramines was held after disinfection. When landscape or crop irrigation is practiced with ammonia-containing wastewater effluent, NDMA production can be controlled by use of lower chlorine doses or by application of alternative disinfectants.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)341-347
Sayfa sayısı7
DergiWater Research
Hacim40
Basın numarası2
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - Oca 2006

Finansman

Financial support for this project was provided by the WateReuse Foundation. We also are grateful to the operators of the utilities that supplied the wastewater effluent samples and the Orange County Water District Laboratory for analysis of NDMA and NDMA precursors in the samples from the full-scale treatment systems.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
WateReuse Foundation

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