Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Vehicle Motion Dynamics-Based Energy Consumption and Recovery

Selin Hulagu, Hilmi Berk Celikoglu*

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In this article we deal with the main critical issues of using electric vehicles in urban transport given the battery related limitations on driving range, and the network layout related limitations on the number of recharging stations. In this context, we seek the optimal routing plans together with the optimal locations of recharging stations for electric vehicle fleets through the Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Intermediate Nodes (ELRP-IN) we propose. The ELRP-IN we formulate as a mathematical program considers the actual characteristics of battery discharging and recovering the braking energy. Energy consumption and recovery are determined through vehicle motion dynamics in conjunction with the 3-dimensional feature of the road geometry, passengers'/customers' demands on getting on and off, and the pre-defined speed profiles, where the graph corresponding to the road network is extended with the explicit consideration of intersections. By alternating the objectives adopted in the ELRP-IN formulation, we discuss through a number of numerical experiments involving real case instances the effects of both the objective functions and the parameters, including the consumption and the gain of energy, cost, traveled distance, and travel time, on the routing plans. Highlighting the finding that energy is not recovered in all the sections with descending grade, we reveal the direct effect of the elevation on the energy consumption, and hence on the location of a recharging station, where we discuss as well the limitation on energy recovery.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)10275-10286
Sayfa sayısı12
DergiIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Basın numarası8
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 1 Ağu 2022

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2000-2011 IEEE.


Manuscript received February 8, 2021; revised April 27, 2021; accepted June 11, 2021. This work was supported in part by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project 218M307. The Associate Editor for this article was P. Wang. (Corresponding author: Hilmi Berk Celikoglu.) The authors are with the ITU ITS Research Lab, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), 34469 ˙stanbul, Turkey, and also with the Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), 34469 ˙stanbul, Turkey (e-mail: hulaguselin@itu.edu.tr; celikoglu@itu.edu.tr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TITS.2021.3089675

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu

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