Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

Tolga Gorum*, Cees J. van Westen, Oliver Korup, Mark van der Meijde, Xuanmei Fan, Freek D. van der Meer

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98 Atıf (Scopus)

Özet

The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered >4490 landslides, mainly shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~2150km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind ruptures of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)127-138
Sayfa sayısı12
DergiGeomorphology
Hacim184
DOI'lar
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 2013
Harici olarak yayınlandıEvet

Finansman

This research was supported by the United Nations University – ITC Center for Spatial Analysis for Disaster Risk Management ( www.itc.nl/unu-drm ). O. Korup acknowledges support by the Potsdam Research Cluster for Georisk Analysis, Environmental Change and Sustainability (PROGRESS) . We are grateful to Gavin P. Hayes and Eric J. Fielding for generously providing the field based coral uplift measurements and the InSAR-derived surface-deformation data. We thank Alexander Strom and an anonymous referee for their constructive and helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
PROGRESS
Potsdam Research Cluster for Georisk Analysis, Environmental Change and Sustainability
United Nations University

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