CNT incorporation improves the resolution and stability of porous 3D printed PLGA/HA/CNT scaffolds for bone regeneration

Hatice Kaya, Şule Arıcı, Osman Bulut, Fuat Bilgili, Duygu Ege*

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2 Atıf (Scopus)


In this study, 3D printed porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and its nanocomposites with 5 wt. % hydroxyapatite (HA) and 0.5, 1 and 2 wt. % carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds were fabricated by using extrusion-based printing. The printing parameters were optimized by rheological studies. The rheological studies demonstrated shear thinning properties for all compositions and an increase in storage modulus was observed after the addition of CNT. Porous PLGA/HA/CNT scaffolds were printed by applying a pressure of 4.76 bar at 125 °C. The addition of 0.5 wt. % of CNT reduced the strut size and increased the porosity from 42% to 60%. The increase in storage modulus and decrease in strut size were related to hydrogen bonding between CNT, HA and PLGA which ultimately improved shape fidelity. The scaffolds were characterized by analysis of their chemical structure, water contact angle measurement, in vitro bioactivity test, biodegradation test, mechanical analysis, and in vitro cell studies. The scaffolds were found to be more hydrophilic by the incorporation of CNTs. Also, degradation studies showed that the microstructure of the scaffold became more stable with the addition of HA and CNT. The compressive modulus of PLGA/HA/CNT2 scaffold was found to be 548.5 MPa, which is found suitable to replace cancellous bone. The scaffolds were found to be highly biocompatible which is possibly due to alignment of CNT and PLGA during 3D printing process. Alizarin red staining indicated improvement of mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells on the CNT incorporated porous 3D scaffolds. The results suggest that the produced porous 3D printed PLGA/HA/CNT scaffolds are promising for bone regeneration applications.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Makale numarası055028
DergiBiomedical Materials (Bristol)
Basın numarası5
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 1 Eyl 2023

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd


This study was supported by Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Grant No. 117M231) and Boğaziçi University Research fund (Grant No. 18001). We would like to also thank Axolotl Bio Systems for their support for 3D printing processes.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu117M231
Boğaziçi Üniversitesi18001

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