An assessment of Southern Ocean water masses and sea ice during 1988-2007 in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations

Stephanie M. Downes*, Riccardo Farneti, Petteri Uotila, Stephen M. Griffies, Simon J. Marsland, David Bailey, Erik Behrens, Mats Bentsen, Daohua Bi, Arne Biastoch, Claus Böning, Alexandra Bozec, Vittorio M. Canuto, Eric Chassignet, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Sergey Danilov, Nikolay Diansky, Helge Drange, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Anatoly GusevArmando Howard, Mehmet Ilicak, Thomas Jung, Maxwell Kelley, William G. Large, Anthony Leboissetier, Matthew Long, Jianhua Lu, Simona Masina, Akhilesh Mishra, Antonio Navarra, A. J. George Nurser, Lavinia Patara, Bonita L. Samuels, Dmitry Sidorenko, Paul Spence, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Qiang Wang, Stephen G. Yeager

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We characterise the representation of the Southern Ocean water mass structure and sea ice within a suite of 15 global ocean-ice models run with the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) protocol. The main focus is the representation of the present (1988-2007) mode and intermediate waters, thus framing an analysis of winter and summer mixed layer depths; temperature, salinity, and potential vorticity structure; and temporal variability of sea ice distributions. We also consider the interannual variability over the same 20 year period. Comparisons are made between models as well as to observation-based analyses where available.The CORE-II models exhibit several biases relative to Southern Ocean observations, including an underestimation of the model mean mixed layer depths of mode and intermediate water masses in March (associated with greater ocean surface heat gain), and an overestimation in September (associated with greater high latitude ocean heat loss and a more northward winter sea-ice extent). In addition, the models have cold and fresh/warm and salty water column biases centred near 50°S. Over the 1988-2007 period, the CORE-II models consistently simulate spatially variable trends in sea-ice concentration, surface freshwater fluxes, mixed layer depths, and 200-700 m ocean heat content. In particular, sea-ice coverage around most of the Antarctic continental shelf is reduced, leading to a cooling and freshening of the near surface waters. The shoaling of the mixed layer is associated with increased surface buoyancy gain, except in the Pacific where sea ice is also influential. The models are in disagreement, despite the common CORE-II atmospheric state, in their spatial pattern of the 20-year trends in the mixed layer depth and sea-ice.

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)67-94
Sayfa sayısı28
DergiOcean Modelling
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - 1 Eki 2015
Harici olarak yayınlandıEvet

Bibliyografik not

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


The CLIVAR Ocean Model Development Panel (OMDP) is responsible for organising the Coordinated Ocean-sea ice Reference Experiments, with support from international CLIVAR and U.S. CLIVAR project offices, particularly Anna Pirani. We are grateful for the efforts of modellers who have contributed to the simulation and processing of the CORE-II experiments. S. M. Downes was supported by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science (grant CE110001028). The ACCESS model is supported by the Australian Government Department of the Environment, the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO through the Australian Climate Change Science Programme. A.W.I. is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers. Q. Wang and D. Sidorenko are funded by the Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regional Climate Change), a joint research project of the Helmholtz Association of German research centers (HGF) under grant: REKLIM-2009-07-16. The GEOMAR model integrations were built on developments in the DRAKKAR collaboration, were performed at the North-German Supercomputing Alliance (HLRN), and were supported by the Cluster of Excellence ‘The Future Ocean’. The BERGEN contribution is supported by the Research Council of Norway through the EarthClim ( 207711/E10 ) and NOTUR/NorStore projects, as well as the Centre for Climate Dynamics at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research. The CMCC contribution received funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research and the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land, and Sea under the GEMINA project. NCAR is sponsored by the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF). S. G. Yeager was supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office under Climate Variability and Predictability Program grant NA09OAR4310163 . We thank Carolina Dufour and Adele Morrison for their useful comments on earlier drafts, and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, all of which helped improve the paper.

FinansörlerFinansör numarası
ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System ScienceCE110001028
Bureau of Meteorology
Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM
Italian Ministry of Environment, Land
National Science Foundation
National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNA09OAR4310163
Natural Environment Research Councilnoc010010
National Stroke Foundation
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca
Department of the Environment, Australian Government
Norges Forskningsråd207711/E10
Helmholtz Association

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