Active distance control in multi-capsule endoscopy via closed loop electromagnetic force between capsules

Furkan Peker*, Onur Ferhanoğlu

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Capsule endoscopy offers a non-invasive and patient-friendly method for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, boasting superior tissue accessibility compared to traditional endoscopy and colonoscopy. While advances have led to capsules capable of drug delivery, tactile sensing, and biopsy, size constraints often limit a single capsule from having multifunctionality. In response, we introduce multi-capsule endoscopy, where individually ingested capsules, each with unique functionalities, work collaboratively. However, synchronized navigation of these capsules is essential for this approach. In this paper, we present an active distance control strategy using a closed-loop system. This entails equipping one capsule with a sphere permanent magnet and the other with a solenoid. We utilized a Simulink model, incorporating (i) the peristalsis motion on the primary capsule, (ii) a PID controller, (iii) force dynamics between capsules through magnetic dipole approximation, and (iv) position tracking of the secondary capsule. For practical implementation, Hall effect sensors determined the inter-capsule distance, and a PID controller adjusted the solenoid’s current to maintain the desired capsule spacing. Our proof-of-concept experiments, conducted on phantoms and ex vivo bovine tissues, pulled the leading capsule mimicking a typical human peristalsis speed of 1 cm/min. Results showcased an inter-capsule distance of 1.94 mm ± 0.097 mm for radii of curvature at 500 mm, 250 mm, and 100 mm, aiming for a 2-mm capsule spacing. For ex vivo bovine tissue, the achieved distance was 0.97 ± 0.28 mm against a target inter-capsule distance of 1 mm. Through the successful demonstration of precise inter-capsule control, this study paves the way for the potential of multi-capsule endoscopy in future research. Graphical abstract: (Figure presented.).

Orijinal dilİngilizce
Sayfa (başlangıç-bitiş)1153-1163
Sayfa sayısı11
DergiMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Basın numarası4
Yayın durumuYayınlandı - Nis 2024

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Publisher Copyright:
© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2023.

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