Zero-valent iron-activated persulfate oxidation of a commercial alkyl phenol polyethoxylate

Kubra Temiz, Tugba Olmez-Hanci, Idil Arslan-Alaton*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Aqueous Triton X-45 (TX-45; 20 mg/L; original total organic carbon (TOC) = 14 mg/L), a representative, commercially important alkylphenol polyethoxylate, was subjected to persulfate (PS) oxidation activated with zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles. After optimization of the ZVI/PS treatment combination (1 g/L ZVI; 2.5 mM PS at pH5) in terms of pH (3-9), ZVI (0.5-5 g/L) and PS (0.5-5.0 mM) concentrations, TX-45 could be efficiently (>90%) degraded within short treatment periods (<60 min) accompanied with significant (>40%) TOC removals. The degree of PS consumption and Fe release was also followed during the experiments and a positive correlation existed between enhanced TX-45 removals and ZVI-activated PS consumption rates accompanied with a parallel Fe release. Acute toxicity tests were conducted using two different bioassays to examine the toxicological safety of the ZVI/PS oxidation system. Acute toxicity profiles significantly decreased from an original value of 66% relative inhibition to 21% and from 16% relative inhibition to non-toxic values according to Vibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata bioassays, respectively. The photobacterium V. fischeri appeared to be more sensitive to TX-45 and its degradation products than the microalgae P. subcapitata.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1757-1767
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Technology (United Kingdom)
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jul 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Taylor & Francis.


The financial support of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey [projects numbers 111Y257-114Y257] and Istanbul Technical University is appreciated

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu111Y257-114Y257
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi


    • Acute toxicity
    • Persulfate activation
    • Sulfate radicals
    • Triton X-45
    • Zero-valent iron nanoparticles


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