Volcanic ash and tsunami record of the Minoan Late Bronze Age Eruption (Santorini) in a distal setting, southwestern Turkey

Erkan Aydar*, Attila ÇİNer, Orkun Ersoy, Emilie ÉCochard, Eric G. Fouache

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the volcanic ash and tsunami record of the Minoan Late Bronze Age Eruption of Santorini (LBAES) in a distal setting in southwestern Turkey. In one of the drilled cores at the Letoon Hellenic antique site on Eşençay Delta, we encountered a 4 cm thick tephra deposit underlain by 46 cm thick tsunami-deposited sand (tsunamite), and an organic-rich layer that we 14C dated to 3295 ± 30 bp or 1633 bc. The relationship between Santorini distal volcanic ash and underlying tsunamite is described and interpreted. LBAES occurred in four main phases: (1) plinian; (2) phreatomagmatic; (3) phreatomagmatic with mudflows; and (4) ignimbritic flows and co-ignimbrite tephra falls. In this study, we aim to understand which eruptive phases generate distal ash during the Minoan eruptive sequence by examining the 3D surface morphology of ash formed by different fragmentation processes. To that end, we used numerous statistical multivariates, 3D fractal dimension of roughness, and a new textural parameter of surface area-3D/plotted area-2D to characterise the eruption dynamics. Based on ash surface morphologies and the calculated statistical parameters, we propose that that distal ash is represented by a single layer composed of well-mixed (coarse to fine) magmatic and phreatomagmatic ash.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-597
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Quaternary Science
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords

  • 3D ash analysis
  • distal ash
  • Minoan eruption
  • polyhedron ash
  • SA/PA
  • Santorini
  • tsunami
  • Turkey

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