Variations and trends in turkish seasonal heating and cooling degree-days

Mikdat Kadiolu, Zekai Şen, Latif Gültekin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


The potential effect of climate change on energy demand is important especially for the developing and non-oil-producing countries. Cooling and heating degree-day (CDD and HDD) concepts are among the most significant meteorological variables related to residential energy consumption. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of Turkish seasonal CDD and HDD in the context of climate change. CDD and HDD are defined objectively by truncation of the temperature series at any constant base temperature level. This leads to surpluses and deficits as deviations. The surpluses are instances for cooling and the deficits for heating. Depending on temperature fluctuations, the degree-day statistics at any location show local and seasonal variations. In this study, regional variations of seasonal HDD and CDD are mapped for Turkey and their relations to local topography and climatic features are examined with conclusive interpretations. The sequential version of Mann-Kendall rank statistic is applied to demonstrate any existence of possible non-linear trends in accumulated HDD and CDD over the seasons. Spatially coherent and statistically significant trends of HDD and CDD appear in some regions of Turkey. In general, the sign of the trends is inconsistent with General Circulation Models (GCM) predictions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-223
Number of pages15
JournalClimatic Change
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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