Unraveling Segmentation Quality of Remotely Sensed Images on Plastic-Covered Greenhouses: A Rigorous Experimental Analysis from Supervised Evaluation Metrics

Gizem Senel, Manuel A. Aguilar*, Fernando J. Aguilar, Abderrahim Nemmaoui, Cigdem Goksel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Plastic-covered greenhouse (PCG) segmentation represents a significant challenge for object-based PCG mapping studies due to the spectral characteristics of these singular structures. Therefore, the assessment of PCG segmentation quality by employing a multiresolution segmentation algorithm (MRS) was addressed in this study. The structure of this work is composed of two differentiated phases. The first phase aimed at testing the performance of eight widely applied supervised segmentation metrics in order to find out which was the best metric for evaluating image segmentation quality over PCG land cover. The second phase focused on examining the effect of several factors (reflectance storage scale, image spatial resolution, shape parameter of MRS, study area, and image acquisition season) and their interactions on PCG segmentation quality through a full factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) design. The analysis considered two different study areas (Almeria (Spain) and Antalya (Turkey)), seasons (winter and summer), image spatial resolution (high resolution and medium resolution), and reflectance storage scale (Percent and 16Bit formats). Regarding the results of the first phase, the Modified Euclidean Distance 2 (MED2) was found to be the best metric to evaluate PCG segmentation quality. The results coming from the second phase revealed that the most critical factor that affects MRS accuracy was the interaction between reflectance storage scale and shape parameter. Our results suggest that the Percent reflectance storage scale, with digital values ranging from 0 to 100, performed significantly better than the 16Bit reflectance storage scale (0 to 10,000), both in the visual interpretation of PCG segmentation quality and in the quantitative assessment of segmentation accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number494
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


This work has been carried out during Gizem Senel’s fellowship as a visiting researcher at the University of Almería. This scholarship was supported by TUBITAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council) [grant number: 2214a-1059B142100454]. Gizem Senel also acknowledges the Council of Higher Education (CoHE) 100/2000 and TUBITAK 2211-A scholarships. This research was funded by Spanish Ministry for Science, Innovation and Universities (Spain) and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund, ERDF) funds, grant number RTI2018-095403-B-I00.

FundersFunder number
Spanish Ministry for Science, Innovation and Universities
Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council2214a-1059B142100454
European Commission
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu
Yükseköğretim Kurulu100/2000
European Regional Development FundRTI2018-095403-B-I00


    • greenhouse segmentation
    • multiresolution segmentation (MRS)
    • object-based image analysis (OBIA)
    • segmentation quality
    • supervised evaluation


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