Traditional and modified Newmark displacement methods after the 2022 Ms 6.8 Luding earthquake (Eastern Tibetan Plateau)

Danny Love Wamba Djukem, Xuanmei Fan*, Anika Braun, Marie Luce Chevalier, Xin Wang, Lanxin Dai, Chengyong Fang, Xinxin Zhang, Tolga Gorum, Qiang Xu, Hans Balder Havenith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Newmark displacement (ND) method, which reproduces the interactions between waves, solids, and fluids during an earthquake, has experienced numerous modifications. We compare the performances of a traditional and a modified version of the ND method through the analysis of co-seismic landslides triggered by the 2022 Ms 6.8 Luding earthquake (Sichuan, China). We implemented 23 ND scenarios with each equation, assuming different landslide depths, as well as various soil-rock geomechanical properties derived from previous studies in regions of similar lithology. These scenarios allowed verifying the presence or absence of such landslides and predict the likely occurrence locations. We evaluated the topographic and slope aspect amplification effects on both equations. The oldest equation has a better landslide predictive ability, as it considers both slope stability and earthquake intensity. Contrarily, the newer version of the ND method has a greater emphasis on slope stability compared to the earthquake intensity and hence tends to give high ND values only when the critical acceleration is weak. The topographic amplification does not improve the predictive capacity of these equations, most likely because few or no massive landslides were triggered from mountain peaks. This approach allows structural, focal mechanism, and site effects to be considered when designing ND models, which could help to explain and predict new landslide distribution patterns such as the abundance of landslides on the NE, E, S, and SE-facing slopes observed in the Luding case.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-828
Number of pages22
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2024.


This research is financially supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant 42125702), the Natural Science Foundation Sichuan Province (Grant 22NSFSC0029), the Tencent Foundation through the XPLORER PRIZE (Grant XPLORER-2022-1012).

FundersFunder number
Tencent FoundationXPLORER-2022-1012
China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists42125702
Natural Science Foundation of Sichuan Province22NSFSC0029


    • Co-seismic landslides
    • Earthquake intensity
    • Focal mechanism effect
    • Site effects
    • Slope aspect
    • Topographic amplification


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