Trace metals in core sediments from a deep lake in eastern Turkey: Vertical concentration profiles, eco-environmental risks and possible sources

Memet Varol*, Özgür Canpolat, Kürşad Kadir Eriş, Metin Çağlar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


The contents of 12 trace metals (Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Al and Fe) in two sediment cores (Hz11-P02 and Hz11-P09) from the Lake Hazar, one of the deepest natural lakes in Turkey, were examined to evaluate vertical concentration profiles, possible sources, pollution status and eco-environmental risks of these metals. The highest concentrations of Cd and As were detected in the upper part (0–10 cm depths) of core Hz11-P02, while Hg concentration was at a maximum in the upper part of core Hz11-P09. The concentrations of other metals except Cr were the highest in the bottom layer (depths below 100 cm) of both cores. Among trace metals (TMs), Cr, Ni, Al and Mn in core Hz11-P02 and Mn in core Hz11-P09 showed statistically significant correlations with core depth (p < 0.01). The mean concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Al and Fe in core Hz11-P02 were significantly higher than those in core Hz11-P09 (p < 0.01). Also, the mean enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and contamination factor values of As, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg were higher in core Hz11-P02. The ecological risk index (RI) values for core Hz11-P02 were between 150 and 300 in 40.3% of the samples, indicating “moderate ecological risk”, whereas the RI values for core Hz11-P09 were <150 in 100% of the samples, indicating “low ecological risk”. Factor, cluster and correlation analyses, and contamination indices indicated that As and Hg in core Hz11-P02 predominantly originated from anthropogenic sources, while 12 trace metals in core Hz11-P09 derived from natural sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110060
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey supported this research ( 111Y045 and 113Y586 ). Special thanks are given to the editor Professor Bing Yan and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions for improving this manuscript.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu111Y045, 113Y586


    • Eco-environmental risks
    • Lake hazar
    • Sediment core
    • Source identification
    • Trace metals


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