Toward fully three-dimensional-printed miniaturized confocal imager

Janset Savaş, Ramin Khayatzadeh, Fehmi Çivitçi, Yiǧit Daǧhan Gökdel, Onur Ferhanoǧlu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


We present a disposable miniaturized confocal imager, consisting mostly of three-dimensional (3-D)-printed components. A 3-D printed laser scanner with 10×10 mm2 frame size is employed for Lissajous scan, with 180 and 315 Hz frequencies in orthogonal directions corresponding to ±8 deg and ±4 deg optical scan angles, respectively. The actuation is done electromagnetically via a magnet attached to the scanner and an external coil. A miniaturized lens with 6-mm clear aperture and 10-mm focal length is 3-D printed and postprocessed to obtain desired (≤λ/5 surface roughness) performance. All components are press-fitted into a 3-D-printed housing having 17 mm width, which is comparable to many of the MEMS-based scanning imagers. Finally, line-scan from a resolution target and two-dimensional scanning in the sample location were demonstrated with the integrated device.0

Original languageEnglish
Article number041402
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


The authors would like to thank Ahmet Turan Talas from Bog˘aziçi University for his support in manufacturing all 3-D-printed parts. Y. Dag˘han Gökdel acknowledges support by TUBITAK under grant 113S114. Onur Ferhanog˘lu acknowledges support by TUBITAK under grant 215E259 and Istanbul Technical University Research Fund (ITU BAP # 39124).

FundersFunder number
Istanbul Technical University Research FundITU BAP # 39124
TUBITAK113S114, 215E259


    • confocal endoscopy
    • imaging systems
    • lenses
    • optical fabrication
    • scanners


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