The randolph glacier inventory: A globally complete inventory of glaciers

W. Tad Pfeffer, Anthony A. Arendt, Andrew Bliss, Tobias Bolch, J. Graham Cogley, Alex S. Gardner, Jon Ove Hagen, Regine Hock, Georg Kaser, Christian Kienholz, Evan S. Miles, Geir Moholdt, Nico Mölg, Frank Paul, Valentina Radić, Philipp Rastner, Bruce H. Raup, Justin Rich, Martin J. Sharp, L. M. AndreassenS. Bajracharya, N. E. Barrand, M. J. Beedle, E. Berthier, R. Bhambri, I. Brown, D. O. Burgess, E. W. Burgess, F. Cawkwell, T. Chinn, L. Copland, N. J. Cullen, B. Davies, H. De Angelis, A. G. Fountain, H. Frey, B. A. Giffen, N. F. Glasser, S. D. Gurney, W. Hagg, D. K. Hall, U. K. Haritashya, G. Hartmann, S. Herreid, I. Howat, H. Jiskoot, T. E. Khromova, A. Klein, J. Kohler, M. König, D. Kriegel, S. Kutuzov, I. Lavrentiev, R. Le Bris, X. Li, W. F. Manley, C. Mayer, B. Menounos, A. Mercer, P. Mool, A. Negrete, G. Nosenko, C. Nuth, A. Osmonov, R. Pettersson, A. Racoviteanu, R. Ranzi, M. A. Sarikaya, C. Schneider, O. Sigurdsson, P. Sirguey, C. R. Stokes, R. Wheate, G. J. Wolken, L. Z. Wu, F. R. Wyatt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

856 Citations (Scopus)


The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999-2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800±34 000km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)537-552
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Glaciology
Issue number221
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
Environment Canada
European Space Agency4000101778/10/I-AM
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
National Science Foundation0943599, 1038818, 1038907


    • Antarctic glaciology
    • Arctic glaciology
    • Glacier delineation
    • Glacier mapping
    • Remote sensing
    • Tropical glaciology


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