The merit of the North Sea-Caspian pattern in explaining climate variability in the Euro-Mediterranean region

Ferat Çağlar*, Omer Yetemen, Kwok Pan Chun, Omer Lutfi Sen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Teleconnection patterns are one of the key features to understanding high-frequency natural climate variability. The North Sea-Caspian Pattern (NCP) was identified as a middle tropospheric dipole and its hydroclimatological implications have been substantially restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean region. Thus, the hydroclimatological influences of the NCP in the Euro-Mediterranean region were investigated via a comparative approach with dominant tropospheric teleconnections in the Eurasian region and synoptic features such as ridge-trough positioning and strength. By using high-resolution ERA5 reanalysis data, cross-correlations between indexes, anticorrelations at 500 hPa and composite anomaly maps for seasonally representative months were produced to understand the working mechanism of the NCP. Comparisons included the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR) pattern, a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) variant of NCP which utilizes pole-based representation. Analysis revealed that the NCP was correlated well with the Mediterranean trough displacement and with the strength of the East Asian trough. Climate anomalies indicated by the NCP were greater and more spatially consistent compared to other teleconnections. The NCP also showed higher contrasts of temperature and precipitation than the EAWR based on the composite anomaly maps. In conclusion, the NCP explained climate variability in all seasons linking remote centres of action within Eurasia's east and west extremes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4648-4661
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Climatology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. International Journal of Climatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Meteorological Society.


This study was supported by the 2232 International Fellowship for Outstanding Researchers Program of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under grant 118C329. The financial support from TUBITAK does not mean that the content of the publication reflects the approved scientific view of TUBITAK. We thank Lucy Hyam for her kind help in proofreading this paper for grammar and punctuation.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu118C329


    • AO
    • EAWR
    • Euro-Mediterranean
    • hydro-climatology
    • Mediterranean trough
    • NAO
    • NCP
    • teleconnections


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