The integrated hydro-solar e-fuel production for a tea factory: Preliminary design and thermodynamic analysis

Selcuk Inac*, Adnan Midilli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents the preliminary design and thermodynamic analysis of hydropower and solar integrated e-fuel production system for a tea factory. In this regard, an integrated hydro-solar e-fuel production system has been developed, which is mainly able to produce e-methanol and green hydrogen. The system contains five main subsystems: i) Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer system, ii) CO2 capture and storage system, iii) Methanol production system, iv) Photovoltaic system, and v) Penstock hydroelectric power plant. In terms of the general system operating principle, it is important to emphasize that the energy need of the system is supplied by solar power plant during the sunshine duration (the case 1) and provided by hydropower plant in the period when solar energy is not sufficient (the case 2). Considering the required assumptions, in the first step, preliminary design was performed, and in the second step, the energy and exergy analyzes were achieved, and in the final step, the effects of parameters such as CO2 capture efficiency, methanol reactor conversion ratio, and environmental temperature on the system performance were parametrically investigated. Accordingly, in the case 1, the maximum energy and exergy efficiencies of the integrated e-fuel production system were respectively obtained to be 7.132% and 6.569% while, in the case 2, those were respectively calculated to be 39.44% and 42.36%. Moreover, approximately 235.9 tons of CO2 emission in operation period of the tea factory considered in this work can be reduced by the integrated hydro-solar e-fuel production system that has a production capacity of 399.8 kg/h for methanol and 37.73 kg/h for hydrogen. It is expected that the integrated system concept may contribute to the researchers, system designers, policy makers, investors, and different enterprises for practical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)979-990
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2024

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  • E-Methanol
  • Hydrogen
  • Hydropower
  • Solar
  • Thermodynamic analysis


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