The Effects of Spatial Connectivity on Pedestrian Movement and Space Usage in Waterfront Areas

Zeynep Ceren Durgut, Dilek Yildiz Ozkan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


The existence and life of our cities are dependent on pedestrian flow. Spatial connectivity between public spaces makes pedestrian flow possible. There are many studies in the literature researching spatial connectivity using various methods. Many of them, only analysing physical connectivity, also focus on a determined urban area but not waterfront areas. The significance of this study is that it points to the potential of waterfront areas and focuses on both physical and visual connectivity analyses. Topographical features were also evaluated with 3D visual analyses. This study aims to ensure that waterfront areas can be more liveable and be a part of the urban structure through spatial connectivity. Five waterfront areas in Istanbul were selected from Tarabya and Kireçburnu which are on the European side of the Bosphorus. Spatial connectivity, pedestrian movement, and space usage were analysed in these areas. Spatial connectivity analyses which are metric reach, directional reach, two and three-dimensional visual analysis, were performed in Rhino Grasshopper. Pedestrian movement and space usage were analysed by twenty-minute systematic observations and the gate count method. Finally, all data were evaluated using Spearman correlation, cluster analysis and the Mann-Whitney U test. Study areas were divided into two groups based on their similarities related to spatial connectivity levels, the presence of green areas, the presence of urban equipment (play and sports areas), the visibility of the opposite shore, and the presence of site-specific functions. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed between these groups and pedestrian movement. As a result, while the correlation analyses did not yield significant results due to the limited number of areas studied, the observations revealed that spatial connectivity had a positive effect on pedestrian movement. However, spatial connectivity isn’t the only variable for increasing space usage. In addition to the connectivity of waterfront areas, it has been found that green areas and site-specific functions have a strong impact on pedestrian movement and space usage. So, what needs to be done to make waterfront areas an active part of the city is to strengthen the spatial connectivity and to increase the number and diversity of the facilities, especially the green areas.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 13th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2022
EditorsAkkelies van Nes, Remco E. de Koning
PublisherWestern Norway University of Applied Sciences (HVL)
ISBN (Electronic)9788293677673
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event13th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2022 - Bergen, Norway
Duration: 20 Jun 202224 Jun 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings 13th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2022


Conference13th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Proceedings 13th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2022. All rights reserved.


  • pedestrian movement
  • space usage
  • spatial connectivity
  • Waterfront areas


Dive into the research topics of 'The Effects of Spatial Connectivity on Pedestrian Movement and Space Usage in Waterfront Areas'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this