State and transforming institutional logics: the emergence and demise of Ottoman cooperatives as hybrid organizational forms, 1861–1888

Cemil Ozan Soydemir*, Mehmet Erçek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study demonstrates the emergence, subsequent diffusion, and early demise of Ottoman agricultural credit cooperatives, called Memleket Sandiks (OMSs), as they represent unique hybrid forms that blend state, community, and market logics in a single organizational configuration. The study narrates how changes in the Ottoman Empire’s institutional order during the Tanzimat era enabled conditions that led to the emergence of OMSs. Subsequently, the practices of the form transformed, especially after the Russian-Ottoman War, concomitant with further changes in Ottoman society’s institutional order. Although OMSs initially enjoyed legitimacy granted by the Ottoman State, the shift towards dominating state logic in the Hamidian era led to the erosion of practices animated by market and community logics. The form was discontinued as the increasingly autocratic state levied taxes and preyed upon the accumulated surplus, which disabled agglomerative capacity of sandiks and diminished the solidarity among cooperative members.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-453
Number of pages31
JournalBusiness History
Volume65
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Funding

The authors thank The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey for its financial support (Grant no 217K015). The authors greatly acknowledge the comments of two anonymous reviewers, which significantly improved the arguments of the paper. The authors also wish to express their gratitude to Mustafa Günalp Çil, who spared his valuable time to elaborate on various documents gathered from the Ottoman archives.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu217K015

    Keywords

    • cooperative
    • hybrid organizing
    • Institutional logics
    • organizational form
    • the Ottoman State

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