S2O82-/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatment of Bisphenol A: Assessment of toxicity, estrogenic activity, degradation products and results in real water

Tugba Olmez-Hanci*, Duygu Dursun, Egemen Aydin, Idil Arslan-Alaton, Binhan Girit, Luigi Mita, Nadia Diano, Damiano G. Mita, Marco Guida

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


The performance of S2O82-/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatments was investigated for the degradation and detoxification of Bisphenol A (BPA). The acute toxicity of BPA and its degradation products was examined with the Vibrio fischeri bioassay, whereas changes in estrogenic activity were followed with the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay. LC and LC-MS/MS analyses were conducted to determine degradation products evolving during photochemical treatment. In addition, BPA-spiked real freshwater samples were also subjected to S2O82-/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatment to study the effect of a real water matrix on BPA removal and detoxification rates. BPA removal in pure water was very fast (≤7min) and complete via both H2O2/UV-C and S2O82-/UV-C treatment, accompanied with rapid and significant mineralization rates ranging between 70% and 85%. V. fischeri bioassay results indicated that degradation products being more toxic than BPA were formed at the initial stages of H2O2/UV-C whereas a rapid and steady reduction in toxicity was observed during S2O82-/UV-C treatment in pure water. UV-C treatment products exhibited a higher estrogenic activity than the original BPA solution while the estrogenicity of BPA was completely removed during H2O2/UV-C and S2O82-/UV-C treatments parallel to its degradation. 3-methylbenzoic and 4-sulfobenzoic acids, as well as the ring opening products fumaric, succinic and oxalic acids could be identified as degradation products. BPA degradation required extended treatment periods (20min) and TOC removals were considerably retarded (by 40%) in the raw freshwater matrix most probably due to its natural organic matter content (TOC=5.1mgL-1). H2O2/UV-C and S2O82-/UV-C treatment in raw freshwater did not result in toxic degradation products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S115-S123
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


The financial support of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project No: 111Y257 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are thankful to Prof. Dr. Işık Kabdaşlı for her support during Vibrio fischeri analysis. Idil Arslan-Alaton is a member of the Academy of Science, Turkey.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu


    • Acute toxicity
    • Bisphenol A
    • Degradation products
    • Real freshwater matrix
    • SO/UV-C and HO/UV-C treatments
    • Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay


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