Spatiotemporal Variability of Gross Primary Productivity in Türkiye: A Multi-Source and Multi-Method Assessment

Eyyup Ensar Başakın*, Paul C. Stoy, Mehmet Cüneyd Demirel, Quoc Bao Pham

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We investigated the spatiotemporal variability of remotely sensed gross primary productivity (GPP) over Türkiye based on MODIS, TL-LUE, GOSIF, MuSyQ, and PMLV2 GPP products. The differences in various GPP products were assessed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U methods, and long-term trends were analyzed using Modified Mann–Kendall (MMK), innovative trend analysis (ITA), and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Our results show that at least one GPP product significantly differs from the others over the seven geographic regions of Türkiye (χ2 values of 50.8, 21.9, 76.9, 42.6, 149, 34.5, and 168; p < 0.05), and trend analyses reveal a significant increase in GPP from all satellite-based products over the latter half of the study period. Throughout the year, the average number of months in which each dataset showed significant increases across all study regions are 6.7, 8.1, 5.9, 9.6, and 8.7 for MODIS, TL-LUE, GOSIF, MuSyQ, and PMLV2, respectively. The ITA and EMD methods provided additional insight into the MMK test in both visualizing and detecting trends due to their graphical techniques. Overall, the GPP products investigated here suggest ‘greening’ for Türkiye, consistent with the findings from global studies, but the use of different statistical approaches and satellite-based GPP estimates creates different interpretations of how these trends have emerged. Ground stations, such as eddy covariance towers, can help further improve our understanding of the carbon cycle across the diverse ecosystem of Türkiye.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1994
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 by the authors.


  • carbon cycle
  • empirical mode decomposition
  • gross primary productivity
  • innovative trend analysis
  • Modified Mann–Kendall
  • remote sensing


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