Some Anisotropic Universes in the Presence of Imperfect Fluid Coupling with Spatial Curvature

Özgür Akarsu*, Can Battal Kılınç

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


We consider Bianchi VI spacetime, which also can be reduced to Bianchi types VI 0 -V-III-I. We initially consider the most general form of the energy-momentum tensor which yields anisotropic stress and heat flow. We then derive an energy-momentum tensor that couples with the spatial curvature in a way so as to cancel out the terms that arise due to the spatial curvature in the evolution equations of the Einstein field equations. We obtain exact solutions for the universes indefinitely expanding with constant mean deceleration parameter. The solutions are beriefly discussed for each Bianchi type. The dynamics of the models and fluid are examined briefly, and the models that can approach to isotropy are determined. We conclude that even if the observed universe is almost isotropic, this does not necessarily imply the isotropy of the fluid (e.g., dark energy) affecting the evolution of the universe within the context of general relativity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1962-1977
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Theoretical Physics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


Acknowledgements This research was carried out at the Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University. Ö. Akarsu appreciates the support he received from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜB˙TAK) while this research was being carried out. Ö. Akarsu acknowledges the support he is presently receiving from the Turkish Academy of Sciences (TÜBA).

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu
Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi


    • Anisotropic dark energy
    • Bianchi models
    • Heat flow
    • Imperfect fluid
    • Isotropization
    • Spatial curvature


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