Sintering effect on mechanical properties of composites of natural hydroxyapatites and titanium

S. Salman*, O. Gunduz, S. Yilmaz, M. L. Öveçoǧlu, Robert L. Snyder, S. Agathopoulos, F. N. Oktar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents the fabrication and characterization of composite materials of hydroxyapatite and Ti. Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was obtained from bovine bones (BHA) and human enamel (EHA) via calcination technique. Fine powders of HA were admixed with 5 and 10 wt.% fine powder of metallic Ti. Powder-compacts were sintered at different temperatures between 1000 and 1300 °C. Compression strength, Vickers microhardness and elastic modulus as well as density were measured. SEM and X-ray diffraction studies were also conducted. The experimental results showed that addition of Ti to EHA and BHA decreases the elastic modulus, comparing to samples of pure BHA. The best mechanical properties for BHA-Ti composites were obtained after sintering in the range of 1200-1300 °C and for EHA-Ti composites in the range of 1100-1300 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2965-2971
Number of pages7
JournalCeramics International
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2009


This study was carried out with the financial support of the Turkish Republic Government Planning Organization in the framework of the Project “Manufacturing and Characterization of Electro-Conductive Bioceramics” with project number 2003 K120810. The authors are grateful to L.S. Ozyegin, from Dental Technology Department, School of Health Related Professions, Istanbul, Turkey, for BHA production. The first author acknowledges the assistance of A. Sreeranganathan for elastic modulus measurements in the University of Georgia Institute of Technology and Robert L. Snyder from Georgia Institute of Technology, where he is spending his sabbatical.

FundersFunder number
Turkish Republic Government Planning Organization2003 K120810


    • A. Sintering
    • B. Microstructure
    • C. Mechanical properties
    • Hydroxyapatite
    • Titanium


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