Seasonal variation of carbonaceous PM2.5 in an Istanbul traffic site

Rosa M. Flores*, Hüseyin Özdemir, Bülent O. Akkoyunlu, Alper Ünal, Mete Tayanç

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The seasonal variation of fine carbonaceous aerosol was evaluated in an urban traffic site in Istanbul. PM2.5 samples were collected on selected days during four seasons between Jan 2017–Jan 2018. Daily PM2.5 concentrations were obtained experimentally by the gravimetric method in Beşiktaş, while hourly concentrations were obtained from the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Istanbul in Çatladıkapı, Silivri, Kağıthane, and Ümraniye. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined by a thermo-optical carbon analyzer for samples collected in Beşiktaş. The 24-h US-EPA air quality standard of 35 μg m−3 was exceeded 13, 25, 41, 42, and 57% of the time in Çatladıkapı, Silivri, Kağıthane, Ümraniye, and Beşiktaş, respectively. These exceedances occurred mainly during the fall and winter owing to a combination of emissions from fuel combustion for residential heating, traffic and industry, and poor air dispersion due to weak atmospheric motion and low mixing heights. Average OC concentrations ranged as 6.62–7.32 μg m−3 during spring and summer, and 13.76–14.1 μg m−3 during fall and winter. The OC concentrations observed in this work during the summer and winter were 2–4 and 3–6 times higher than concentrations observed in the USA and Europe, respectively. The EC concentrations did not show considerable seasonal variation, with values between 2.16 and 3.26 μg m−3. EC concentrations in Beşiktaş were 7 and 9 times higher than concentrations observed in the USA and Europe, in order. Results obtained in this study could be helpful for future implementation of policies and strategies to reduce emissions from combustion sources in order to comply with the air quality standards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2110-2118
Number of pages9
JournalAtmospheric Pollution Research
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control

Funding

This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK) through project No. 115Y625 . The authors thank Elif Mertoğlu and Ayşegul Pursa for their assistance, IETT-Beşiktaş for use of their facilities, and the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and Department of Transportation for the data provided. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) at NOAA for the provision of HYSPLIT air mass trajectories and the Earth's Science Department at BSC for the provision of DREAM8b v2.0 dust loading forecasts. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (T?BITAK) through project No. 115Y625. The authors thank Elif Merto?lu and Ay?egul Pursa for their assistance, IETT-Be?ikta? for use of their facilities, and the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and Department of Transportation for the data provided. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) at NOAA for the provision of HYSPLIT air mass trajectories and the Earth's Science Department at BSC for the provision of DREAM8b v2.0 dust loading forecasts.

FundersFunder number
Air Resources Laboratory
Earth's Science Department
Ministry of Environment and Urbanization
U.S. Department of Transportation
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu115Y625

    Keywords

    • Air pollution
    • Elemental carbon
    • Fine particulate matter
    • Megacity
    • OC/EC
    • Organic carbon
    • Turkey

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