Revisiting the Impact Evaluation of Women’s Empowerment: A MCDM-Based Evaluation Indicator Selection Framework Proposal

Nihan Yıldırım*, Fatma Köroğlu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Women’s empowerment programs play a critical role in achieving the United Nations’ (UN’s) sustainable development goal of “Gender Equality”. However, non-profit organizations (NPOs) running women’s empowerment (WE) programs face challenges in monitoring, assessing, and evaluating the social impact (SI) and program performance due to the lack of solid guidelines. This study aims to analyze the impact and outcome evaluation indicators of WE programs by providing a quantitative tool. A multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model is proposed to identify and prioritize the performance indicators by utilizing Fuzzy TOPSIS (FTOPSIS) and Fuzzy AHP (FAHP) in a combined methodology. Results validated the identification and classification of the indicators by their importance and viability. In a qualitative study with NPOs working on WE in Turkey, social impact and outcome evaluation indicators are defined and ranked by criteria set in the proposed combined MCDM framework. The study aims to contribute to the theoretical frameworks and practices on social impact and outcome evaluation of women’s empowerment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-145
Number of pages25
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


This study is a product of the Social Impact Analysis of BPFC Project Nr 9801 funded by the sponsorship of IDEMA International and hosted by ITUNOVA TTO A. Ş. (Istanbul Technical University Technology Transfer Office) in 2022. We thank all the organizations for their collaboration and support. Open access funding provided by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Türkiye (TÜBİTAK).

FundersFunder number
IDEMA International
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu


    • Fuzzy AHP
    • Fuzzy TOPSIS
    • MCDM
    • Performance measurement
    • Social impact indicators
    • Social impact measurement
    • Women’s empowerment


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