Real-Time Stride Length Estimation Using Textile-Based Capacitive Soft Strain Sensors

Ugur Ayvaz, Kadir Ozlem, Ayse Feyza Yilmaz, Asli Tuncay Atalay, Ozgur Atalay*, Gökhan Ince*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


— Stride length estimation (SLE) is a fundamental component of pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) in indoor navigation and positioning (INP) applications. The knowledge of stride length is crucial for determining the distances covered by pedestrians and estimating their position in real time. In this study, we proposed a real-time SLE method using innovative textile-based capacitive strain sensors (TCSSs) attached to knee pads. The SLE performance of the capacitive sensors was compared with smartphone inertial measurement units (IMUs), and the results were reported. We applied a supervised SLE approach by creating labeled gait data from participants who wore sensors and walked along controlled paths created with predetermined stride lengths. An adaptive stride detection (ASD) algorithm was developed to handle data diversity resulting from varying participant characteristics. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of gait phase features (GPFs) to SLE. The proposed model achieved impressive outcomes with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 8.73 cm, showcasing its significance in accurate real-time SLE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2502011
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.


This work was supported in part by the Scientific Research Unit of Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Istanbul, Turkey, under Grant MGA-2018-41481; and in part by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 221N310 and Grant 120C118.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu120C118, 221N310
Istanbul Teknik ÜniversitesiMGA-2018-41481


    • Capacitive strain sensors
    • e-textiles
    • gait analysis
    • pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR)
    • stride length estimation (SLE)


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