Pullulan films loading saffron extract encapsulated in nanoliposomes; preparation and characterization

Zahra Najafi*, Cyril J.F. Kahn, Fatih Bildik, Elmira Arab-Tehrany, Neşe Şahin-Yeşilçubuk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Nanoencapsulation of saffron extract (SE) components into the rapeseed lecithin nanoliposomes were performed by sonication of their aqueous dispersions as a green process. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results exhibited that empty and SE loaded nanoliposomes (SENL) had average sizes in range of 118-138 nm, negative zeta potentials (−32.0 to −46.8 mV) and polydispersity index (PDI) less than 0.3 during storage for 28 days at 4 °C. Encapsulation efficiency of crocin was approximately 30%. The 70% of crocin released from SENLs within 5 h in PBS solution. Pullulan-based films were fabricated by incorporation of empty and SE loaded nanoliposomes into pullulan solution through casting method. The mechanical resistance and thermal stability of the films reduced by addition of nanoliposomes. FTIR and thermal characterizations indicated that SE was successfully encapsulated in the nanoliposomes and film matrix with high thermal stability. Incorporation of nanoliposomes enhanced the oxygen barrier properties of the films, while it didn't significantly affect the water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films. The obtained edible films or coatings can provide additional benefits due to unique flavor and color of saffron. In addition, the utilization of SE, can provide benefits for health-allegation from SE antioxidant capacity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-71
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


This work was partially supported by grants from ITU-BAP (Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit) (Project No: 41582 ). Z. Najafi acknowledges the Erasmus+ Exchange Programme for funding her research stay at the Lorraine University of France. We also thank to Dr. Cedric Paris for his valuable comments and his assistance to perform LC-MS/MS experiment.

FundersFunder number
Lorraine University of France
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi41582


    • Nanoliposome
    • Pullulan edible film
    • Saffron extract


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