Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility

Merve Tomas, Gamze Toydemir, Dilek Boyacioglu, Robert D. Hall, Jules Beekwilder, Esra Capanoglu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose–fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. RESULTS: Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88–93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3106-3113
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Society of Chemical Industry


  • antioxidant
  • black mulberry jam
  • in vitro bioaccessibility
  • phenolics


Dive into the research topics of 'Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this