Porous, columnar shaped iron rich oxide synthesis for lithium-ion batteries from metallurgical grade, domestic, high carbon ferro-chromium alloys

Mehmet Feryat Gülcan, Billur Deniz Karahan*, Sebahattin Gürmen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

With this article, first time in the open literature, the synthesis, and the characterization of an anode material from a domestic, intermediate product (i.e. ferrochromium alloy) have been carried out. The presented approach sets an example for many researchers in the future, as it allows the fabrication of low carbon footprint electrodes cost-effectively without using materials that can cause serious harm to the environment during their production processes. The research consists of two steps. First, a dihydrate iron-rich oxalate in the columnar structure is attained by selectively precipitating manganese, nickel, and cobalt together with iron, from the leachate of the domestic ferrochromium alloy with sulphuric acid. Then, once the powder is calcinated in a vacuum at 180˚C for 3 h, the anhydrous iron-rich oxalate (S1) powder is obtained and tested as an anode material. Moreover, the dihydrate iron-rich oxalate powder is calcinated in an argon atmosphere at 550˚C for 2 h to successfully fabricate porous, columnar-shaped iron-rich oxide (S2) powder. Galvanostatic tests demonstrate that the calcination affects both the structure and the morphology, hence the electrochemical performance: After 250 cycles, S2 delivers 1034.75 mAh g-1, whilst S1 performs 725.39 mAh g-1. The characterizations reveal that the presence of Mn, Ni, Co, along with Fe, increases the cycleability by creating additional electron conductive pathways in the powder. Moreover, owing to the porosity formed as a result of the calcination in the argon atmosphere, both the mechanical tolerance of the anode against the volumetric expansion that occurs during the reaction with lithium and the electrolyte/electrode contact are improved which lead to a better cycle performance even at higher current loads.

Original languageEnglish
Article number166215
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume922
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.

Funding

The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: This study with project number 218M768 is financially supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey). Istanbul Medipol University sponsored the realization and the characterization of the experiments.Istanbul Technical University is the current affiliation of the corresponding author. The authors would like to greatly acknowledge THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY (TUBITAK) (Project No: 218M768 ) for financial support. The authors thank Eti Krom A.S. for supplying the raw material. The authors thank Prof. Dr. Özgül Keleş and Prof. Dr. Gültekin Göller (Istanbul Technical University), Berk Demirel (Terralab), and Dilan Er (Arcelik A.Ş.) for their help in characterizations. The authors would like to greatly acknowledge THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY (TUBITAK) (Project No: 218M768) for financial support. The authors thank Eti Krom A.S. for supplying the raw material. The authors thank Prof. Dr. Özgül Keleş and Prof. Dr. Gültekin Göller (Istanbul Technical University), Berk Demirel (Terralab), and Dilan Er (Arcelik A.Ş.) for their help in characterizations.

FundersFunder number
Berk Demirel
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu218M768
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

    Keywords

    • Green electrode design
    • High carbon ferrochromium
    • Hydrometallurgy
    • Lithium-ion battery
    • Low carbon footprint anode

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