Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of Malkara lignite and its ex-situ underground coal gasification (UCG) char residues

Yunus Emre Ütnü, Hasancan Okutan, Ahmet Alper Aydın*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although underground coal gasification (UCG) is described and introduced as a clean coal technology, side effects of gasification process and its residues should be well examined for protection of surface water and groundwater systems. PAHs are one of the typical organic pollutants rising from UCG process, which are highly mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic compounds. Due to reported environmental and health hazards of PAHs, PAH content of Malkara lignite and its UCG char residue has been investigated in this study. 16 PAHs listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DIN CEN/TS 15439 (Tar Protocol) are the main focus. Three different solvents with different polarity and composition have been used to understand the extraction mechanism in lignite and char samples and research data have been presented based on GC/MS, FT-IR and thermogravimetric analyses of samples. Malkara lignite and its UCG char contain 7.159 mg/kg and 2.758 mg/kg of EPA PAHs, respectively. Besides, lignite is rich with high molecular weight, whereas its char is abundant in low molecular weight PAHs and PAH derivatives according to data evaluation based on Tar Protocol. In addition to GC/MS data, FT-IR and thermogravimetric analyses also provide valuable information on organic content distribution in samples. The presented data in this paper provide PAH and PAH derivative compositions of Malkara lignite (Tekirdağ, Turkey) and its UCG char residue in detail, together with discussions on organic content distributions in samples.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117949
JournalFuel
Volume275
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Funding

Lignite and UCG char residue samples were obtained from ex-situ UCG studies, which were conducted in Mechanical Engineering Department of Istanbul Technical University and supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) within the scope of “Development of Underground Coal Gasification Technology for Turkish Lignite”. For the detailed description of the UCG studies, M. Gur et al’s study can be reviewed [23] . Lignite samples were obtained from the Malkara/Pirinççeşme region of Turkey, which are shown in Fig. 1 .a. Results of some basic coal analyses such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, heating value analysis and ash fusion temperature analysis are given in Table 1 .

FundersFunder number
TÜBİTAK
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

    Keywords

    • Char
    • Lignite
    • Organic pollutants
    • PAH
    • Underground gasification

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