Optimization of processing parameters for the analysis and detection of embolic signals

Nizamettin Aydin, Hugh S. Markus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is employed by all commercially available ultrasonic systems, provides a time-frequency representation of Doppler ultrasonic signals obtained from blood flow. The FFT assumes that the signal is stationary within the analysis window. However, the presence of short duration embolic signals invalidates this assumption. For optimal detection of embolic signals if FFT is used for signal processing, it is important that the FFT parameters such as window size, window type, and required overlap ratio should be optimized. The effect of varying window type, window size and window overlap ratio were investigated for both simulated embolic signals, and recorded from patients with carotid artery stenosis. An optimal compromise is the use of a Hamming or Hanning window with a FFT size of 64 (8.9 ms) or 128 (17.9 ms). A high overlap ratio should also be employed in order not to miss embolic events occurring at the edges of analysis windows. The degree of overlap required will depend on the FFT size. The minimum overlap should be 65% for a 64-point window and 80% for a 128-point window. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-79
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Ultrasound
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2000
Externally publishedYes


This work was supported by a British Heart Foundation project grant (PG99064).

FundersFunder number
British Heart FoundationPG99064


    • Cerebral embolism
    • Doppler velocity measurement
    • Fast Fourier transform
    • Ultrasonic


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