Optimal Allocation of Renewable Distributed Generations Using Heuristic Methods to Minimize Annual Energy Losses and Voltage Deviation Index

Mikail Purlu*, Belgin Emre Turkay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, two metaheuristic methods, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, are proposed to determine the optimal locations, sizes, and power factors of single and double distributed generation units. In line with the 2050 carbon neutral goal, the aim was to integrate renewable distributed energy sources such as photovoltaic panels and wind turbines into the distribution system with a high penetration level. In contrast to most studies based on constant loads and dispatchable generations, an application considering the seasonal uncertainties of generation and consumption was performed to minimize the annual energy losses and voltage deviations of the distribution network. In addition, dispatchable, controllable and fuel-based conventional resources were allocated to compare the contributions of renewable resources. These seasonal case studies with various constraints were applied to IEEE 33-bus radial distribution network. To verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed algorithms, case studies for peak loads were created and compared with the literature studies. While all distributed generation sources were operated at both unity and optimum power factor in all case studies, zero power factor and leading power factor scenarios were examined for a peak load only. Photovoltaic applications without energy storage technologies have not been efficient because of the uneven daily distribution of solar irradiance, especially insufficient irradiation in the evening and excessive irradiation at noon. However, wind energy applications are more reliable and feasible, because the wind speed distribution is relatively more uniform than that of solar irradiation, both seasonally and daily. In all cases, operating distributed generation sources at the optimal power factor provided better results than those operating at unity power factor. Consequently, wind turbines operating at optimal power factors have been found to contribute better than photovoltaic systems, and are almost as good as conventional sources with controllable power output. While both proposed algorithms yielded better results than those in the literature, particle swarm optimization was better than genetic algorithm in terms of providing the best solution, faster convergence, and shorter running time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21455-21474
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Distributed power generation
  • genetic algorithm
  • heuristic algorithms
  • optimization methods
  • particle swarm optimization
  • photovoltaic systems
  • power system planning
  • renewable energy sources
  • solar energy
  • wind energy


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