One-step electrochemical reduction of stibnite concentrate in molten borax

Levent Kartal*, Mehmet Barış Daryal, Güldem Kartal Şireli, Servet Timur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, antimony production from a stibnite concentrate (Sb2S3) was performed in one step using a molten salt electrolysis method and borax as an electrolyte. Electrochemical reduction of the stibnite concentrate was performed at 800°C under galvanostatic conditions and explained in detail by the reactions and intermediate compounds formed in the borax. The effects of current density (100–800 mA·cm−2) and electrolysis time (10–40 min) on cathodic current efficiency and antimony yields were systematically investigated. During the highest current efficiency, which was obtained at 600 mA·cm−2, direct metal production was possible with 62% cathodic current efficiency and approximately 6 kWh/kg energy consumption. At the end of the 40-min electrolysis duration at 600 mA·cm−2 current density, antimony reduction reached 30.7 g and 99% of the antimony fed to the cell was obtained as metal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1265
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • antimony
  • antimony extraction
  • borax
  • electrochemical reduction
  • molten salt electrolysis
  • stibnite


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