One-dimensional compression behavior of granular soils around virgin compression line (VCL)

Faruk Sefi*, Musaffa Ayşen Lav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of initial values of soil mean grain size (d500) and soil uniformity coefficient (Cu0) on the one-dimensional compression behavior of granular soils. Soil samples consisting of equant-shaped, calcerous origin, crushed individual grains with a grain size range of 2.00–25.00 mm were examined in the laboratory tests. The yield stress, the initial and final stresses of the virgin compression line (VCL), and the hardening stress of soil samples during one-dimensional compression behavior were determined. Results indicated that an increase in the soil’s initial mean grain size and a decrease in the soil’s initial uniformity coefficient led to an increase in the value of these oedometric stresses. Soil samples reached the virgin compression line at an axial deformation (εa(VCL-i)) of 10–13% and passed this line at an axial deformation (εa(VCL-f)) of 26–30%. It was observed that the instantaneous index void ratio values (eminiandemaxi) of the soil samples decreased linearly with a slope (αe) of 0.10 in the e- ln σV plane during one-dimensional compression. The curve of the soil’s instantaneous minimum void ratio (emini) values during one-dimensional compression was proposed as a lower boundary for the one-dimensional compression curve of granular soils.

Original languageEnglish
Article number227
JournalBulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


The authors would like to thank Prof. İskender Atilla Reyhancan and MSc. M. Sahip Kızıltaş for their support in the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Energy Institute Radiography Laboratory. The authors also would like to thank Prof. Hakan Nuri Atahan, Prof. Hasan Yıldırım, and MSc. Hasan Nuri Türkmenoğlu for their support in the ITU Construction Materials Laboratory.

FundersFunder number
ITU Construction Materials Laboratory
Istanbul Teknik Üniversitesi


    • Breakage
    • Compression
    • Grain
    • Minimum void ratio
    • One-dimensional
    • Soil


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