Observation of the Production of Three Massive Gauge Bosons at s =13 TeV

CMS Collaboration

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31 Citations (Scopus)


The first observation is reported of the combined production of three massive gauge bosons (VVV with V=W, Z) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The analysis is based on a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb-1. The searches for individual WWW, WWZ, WZZ, and ZZZ production are performed in final states with three, four, five, and six leptons (electrons or muons), or with two same-sign leptons plus one or two jets. The observed (expected) significance of the combined VVV production signal is 5.7 (5.9) standard deviations and the corresponding measured cross section relative to the standard model prediction is 1.02-0.23+0.26. The significances of the individual WWW and WWZ production are 3.3 and 3.4 standard deviations, respectively. Measured production cross sections for the individual triboson processes are also reported.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151802
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 CERN.


We thank our colleagues in the CERN accelerator departments for the excellent performance of the LHC and thank the technical and administrative staffs at CERN and at other CMS institutes for their contributions to the success of the CMS effort. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the computing centers and personnel of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for delivering so effectively the computing infrastructure essential to our analyses. Finally, we acknowledge the enduring support for the construction and operation of the LHC and the CMS detector provided by the following funding agencies: BMBWF and FWF (Austria); FNRS and FWO (Belgium); CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, FAPERGS, and FAPESP (Brazil); MES (Bulgaria); CERN; CAS, MoST, and NSFC (China); COLCIENCIAS (Colombia); MSES and CSF (Croatia); RIF (Cyprus); SENESCYT (Ecuador); MoER, ERC IUT, PUT and ERDF (Estonia); Academy of Finland, MEC, and HIP (Finland); CEA and CNRS/IN2P3 (France); BMBF, DFG, and HGF (Germany); GSRT (Greece); NKFIA (Hungary); DAE and DST (India); IPM (Iran); SFI (Ireland); INFN (Italy); MSIP and NRF (Republic of Korea); MES (Latvia); LAS (Lithuania); MOE and UM (Malaysia); BUAP, CINVESTAV, CONACYT, LNS, SEP, and UASLP-FAI (Mexico); MOS (Montenegro); MBIE (New Zealand); PAEC (Pakistan); MSHE and NSC (Poland); FCT (Portugal); JINR (Dubna); MON, RosAtom, RAS, RFBR, and NRC KI (Russia); MESTD (Serbia); SEIDI, CPAN, PCTI, and FEDER (Spain); MOSTR (Sri Lanka); Swiss Funding Agencies (Switzerland); MST (Taipei); ThEPCenter, IPST, STAR, and NSTDA (Thailand); TUBITAK and TAEK (Turkey); NASU (Ukraine); STFC (United Kingdom); DOE and NSF (USA).

FundersFunder number
Swiss Funding Agencies
National Science Foundation
U.S. Department of Energy
Hispanics in Philanthropy
Maryland Ornithological Society
Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (COLCIENCIAS)
Secretaría de Educación Pública
Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu
Louisiana Academy of Sciences
Missouri University of Science and Technology
Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics
Cosmetic Surgery Foundation
Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology
Science and Technology Facilities CouncilGRIDPP
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India
Ministry of Education - Singapore
Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India
Science Foundation Ireland
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo
National Natural Science Foundation of China
National Science Council
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
Russian Foundation for Basic Research
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior
Academy of Finland
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Austrian Science Fund
Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS
Russian Academy of Sciences
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
General Secretariat for Research and Technology
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning
National Research Foundation of Korea
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
National Science and Technology Development AgencyThailand
Politechnika Poznańska
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul
Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación
Universiti Malaya
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Ministry of Education and Science
Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives
Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación
European Regional Development Fund
State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Ministry of Science,Technology and Research
Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules
Nemzeti Kutatási, Fejlesztési és Innovaciós Alap
National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute"


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