Multi-phased uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau, Turkey: A record of tectonic and upper mantle processes

T. F. Schildgen*, D. Cosentino, B. Bookhagen, S. Niedermann, C. Yildirim, H. Echtler, H. Wittmann, M. R. Strecker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

196 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Uplifted Neogene marine sediments and Quaternary fluvial terraces in the Mut Basin, southern Turkey, reveal a detailed history of surface uplift along the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau from the Late Miocene to the present. New surface exposure ages ( 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne) of gravels capping fluvial strath terraces located between 28 and 135m above the Göksu River in the Mut Basin yield ages ranging from ca. 25 to 130ka, corresponding to an average incision rate of 0.52 to 0.67mm/yr. Published biostratigraphic data combined with new interpretations of the fossil assemblages from uplifted marine sediments reveal average uplift rates of 0.25 to 0.37mm/yr since Late Miocene time (starting between 8 and 5.45Ma), and 0.72 to 0.74mm/yr after 1.66 to 1.62Ma. Together with the terrace abandonment ages, the data imply 0.6 to 0.7mm/yr uplift rates from 1.6Ma to the present. The different post-Late Miocene and post-1.6Ma uplift rates can imply increasing uplift rates through time, or multi-phased uplift with slow uplift or subsidence in between. Longitudinal profiles of rivers in the upper catchment of the Mut and Ermenek basins show no apparent lithologic or fault control on some knickpoints that occur at 1.2 to 1.5km elevation, implying a transient response to a change in uplift rates. Projections of graded upper relict channel segments to the modern outlet, together with constraints from uplifted marine sediments, show that a slower incision/uplift rate of 0.1 to 0.2mm/yr preceded the 0.7mm/yr uplift rate. The river morphology and profile projections therefore reflect multi-phased uplift of the plateau margin, rather than steadily increasing uplift rates. Multi-phased uplift can be explained by lithospheric slab break-off and possibly also the arrival of the Eratosthenes Seamount at the collision zone south of Cyprus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-95
Number of pages11
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume317-318
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

Funding

This work is part of the Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP), funded by the TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the European Science Foundation, with contributions by the Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria (IGAG-CNR com. TA.P05.009, mod. TA.P05.009.003) and the German Science Foundation (DFG: STR373/25-1; EC-138/5-1). TFS was supported by the Leibniz Center for Surface Processes and Climate Studies at Potsdam University (DFG: STR373/20-1) and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. BB was supported with grants from NASA ( NNX08AG05G) and NSF ( EAR 0819874 ). We thank Enzio Schnabel for performing noble gas analyses, Eric Kirby, Dirk Scherler, Brian Clarke and Angela Landgraf for stimulating discussions, and Bora Rojay and Attila Çiner for logistical help and discussions of regional geology. Alastair Robertson and Mark Brandon provided detailed and constructive reviews that helped to improve the manuscript.

FundersFunder number
IGAG-CNRTA.P05.009, TA.P05.009.003
Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria
Leibniz Center for Surface Processes and Climate Studies at Potsdam UniversitySTR373/20-1
National Science FoundationEAR 0819874
National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNNX08AG05G
Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftSTR373/25-1, EC-138/5-1

    Keywords

    • Biostratigraphy
    • Central Anatolian plateau
    • Channel projection
    • Cosmogenic nuclides
    • Fluvial strath terraces
    • Uplift

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