Monitoring deformations of Istanbul metro line stations through Sentinel-1 and levelling observations

Kerem Halicioglu*, Esra Erten, Cristian Rossi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Turkey, as a developing country, is designing and performing massive construction projects around Istanbul. Beginning from the 1960s, rapid urbanization has been taking place due to industrialization, which brings an increase in the population. Yet, construction projects have been accelerated especially during the last decade, and many new projects are scheduled to be completed in a short time. Ground-based observations are generally carried out to monitor the deformations within construction sites, especially through geometric levelling, and GNSS techniques. However, in most cases, these monitoring measurements are only scheduled within the period of the construction process, and ensuing deformations are usually not considered. In addition to these techniques, the space-based interferometric technique can also be used to define the line of sight surface displacements with high accuracy, using the phase difference between image result for synthetic aperture radar images. In particular, Persistent Scatter Interferometry is one of the interferometric methods that are capable of defining the two-dimensional (vertical and horizontal) deformation for the desired epoch with a high temporal resolution. Thus it can be used as a complementary method for monitoring ground deformations, where the measurement is made by ground-based observations. In this study, the deforming areas related to underground metro construction are investigated through significant displacements between 2015 and 2018 of Sentinel-1 space-borne SAR data using the PSI technique. These results are validated by comparison with available levelling data corresponding to the new metro line.

Original languageEnglish
Article number361
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


FundersFunder number
Freie Universität Berlin


    • Levelling
    • Persistent scatter interferometry
    • Sentinel-1
    • Surface deformation monitoring


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