Microwave dielectric spectroscopy of renal calculi: A large scale study on dielectric properties from 500 MHz to 18 GHz

Tuba Yilmaz*, Banu Sacli, Gokhan Cansiz, Sulayman Joof, Cemanur Aydinalp, Mehmet Cayoren, Ibrahim Akduman, Bulent Onal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Inherent dielectric property discrepancy between biological anomalies and healthy tissue enables the microwave diagnostic and therapeutic technologies. To reveal this discrepancy, microwave dielectric properties of many different biological tissues are tabulated. Although the dielectric properties of biological tissues are well documented in the literature, the knowledge on microwave dielectric property behavior of the renal calculi is limited. This work presents ultra wideband dielectric properties of three renal calculi types between 500 MHz to 18 GHz to pave the way for possible application of microwave technologies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urolithiasis. Microwave dielectric spectroscopy is performed on a total of 66 natural stone samples with open-ended coaxial probe technique. The samples belong to three commonly diagnosed renal calculi categories namely calcium oxalate, cystine, struvite. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed on fitted Cole-Cole parameters and it was concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between the dielectric properties of the renal calculi types. A patient-to-patient statistical test is also performed and it was concluded that there is no statistical difference between the samples belonging to the same renal calculi category. To this end, based on the relative permittivity discrepancy between the renal calculi types, the category of renal calculi can be identified by measuring the dielectric properties of renal calculi with open-ended coaxial probe technique.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8858108
Pages (from-to)1425-1433
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1994-2012 IEEE.


This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 750346. Ibrahim Akduman (M’06) was born in Konya, Turkey, in 1963. He received the B.Sc., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electronics and communication engineering from Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, in 1984, 1987, and 1990, respectively. He was a Visiting Scientist with the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY, USA, in 1991; King’s College London, London, U.K., in 1995; the New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA, in 2000; and the University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, in 2001. He was the Dean of the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, from 1999 to 2001, and a Vice President from 2002 to 2004. He is currently with Istanbul Technical University, as a Full Professor, where he is also the Head of the Electromagnetic Research Group. His current research interests include microwave tomography and electromagnetics in medicine. He is also a shareholder of a company, where he is involved in research and developing products for medical application of electromagnetic fields. Prof. Akduman received the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council Young Scientist Award in 2000.

FundersFunder number
European Union's Horizon 2020
European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program
Marie Sklodowska-Curie
Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council Young
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme750346


    • dielectric properties
    • kidney stones
    • microwave dielectric spectroscopy
    • open-ended coaxial probes


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