Metabolome classification of olive by-products from different oil presses providing insights into its potential health benefits and valorization as analyzed via multiplex MS-based techniques coupled to chemometrics

Nesrin M. Fayek, Mostafa H. Baky*, Zhenhao Li, Ibrahim Khalifa, Esra Capanoglu, Mohamed A. Farag*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most popular edible oil-producing fruits, consumed worldwide for its myriad nutritional and health benefits. Olive oil production generates huge quantities of by-products from the fruit, which are considered environmental hazards. Recently, more and more efforts have been made to valorize olive by-products as a source of low-cost, value-added food applications. Objective: The main objective of this study was to globally assess the metabolome of olive fruit by-products, including olive mill wastewater, olive pomace, and olive seeds from fruits from two areas, Siwa and Anshas, Egypt. Methods: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were used for profiling primary and secondary metabolites in olive by-products. Also, multivariate data analyses were used to assess variations between olive by-product samples. Results: A total of 103 primary metabolites and 105 secondary metabolites were identified by GC-MS and UPLC-MS, respectively. Fatty acids amounted to a major class in the olive by-products at 53–91%, with oleic acid dominating, especially in the pomace of Siwa. Mill wastewater was discriminated from other by-products by the presence of phenolics mainly tyrosol, hydroxyl tyrosol, and α-tocopherol as analyzed by UPLC-MS indicating their potential antioxidant activity. Pomace and seeds were rich in fatty acids/esters and hydroxy fatty acids and not readily distinguishable from each other. Conclusion: The current work discusses the metabolome profile of olive waste products for valorization purposes. Pomace and seeds were enriched in fatty acids/esters, though not readily distinguishable from each other.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhytochemical Analysis
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Keywords

  • fatty acids
  • GC-MS
  • multivariate data analysis
  • Olea europaea L
  • olive by-products
  • olive pomace

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