Measurement based FHSS-type Drone Controller Detection at 2.4GHz: An STFT Approach

Batuhan Kaplan, Ibrahim Kahraman, Ali Gorcin, Hakan Ali Cirpan, Ali Riza Ekti

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The applications of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) increase rapidly in everyday life, thus detecting the UAVs and/or its pilot is a crucial task. Many UAVs adopt frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology to efficiently and securely communicate with their radio controllers (RCs) where the signal follows a hopping pattern to prevent harmful interference. In order to realistically distinguish the frequency hopping (FH) RC signals, one should consider the real-world radio propagation environment since many UAVs communicate with RCs from a far distance in which signal faces both slow and fast fading phenomenons. Therefore, in this study different from the literature, we consider a system that works under real- conditions by capturing over-the-air signals at hilly terrain suburban environments in the presence of foliages. We adopt the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach to capture the hopping sequence of each signal. Furthermore, time guards associated with each hopping sequence are calculated using the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the STFT which results in differentiating the each UAV RC signal accurately. In order to validate the performance of the proposed method, the results of normalized mean square error (MSE) respect to different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), window size and Tx-Rx separation values are given.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2020 - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728152073
Publication statusPublished - May 2020
Event91st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2020 - Antwerp, Belgium
Duration: 25 May 202028 May 2020

Publication series

NameIEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
ISSN (Print)1550-2252


Conference91st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IEEE.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This publication was made possible by NPRP12S-0225-190152 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author[s].

FundersFunder number
Qatar National Research FundNPRP12S-0225-190152


    • UAV remote controller detection
    • frequency hopping
    • short-time Fourier transform


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