Macro defect free cements: A review

Ozgur Ekincioglu, M. Hulusi Ozkul, Silvia Patachia

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The usage of polymers in different sectors has been increasing in recent decades, and even our current age may have been defined as polymer age. When concrete is considered polymers are also widely used to modify the properties of both mortar and concrete and the usage of polymers in concrete dates back to 1920’s. On the other hand, Macro-defect free (MDF) cements are one particular type of cement-polymer composites and developed and patented by scientists at Imperial College at the beginnings of 1980’s. MDF cements are produced by mixing cement (commonly calcium aluminate cement) with small amounts of polymer (usually polyvinyl alcohol acetate) and water. High shear, relatively low pressure (about 5 MPa) and moderate temperature (about 80-100 °C) are applied during the production of this material. MDF cements, although consist of more than 80% by weight of cement, show 20-30 times higher flexural strength comparing to ordinary Portland cements. However, MDF cements show a considerable reduction in strength when they are exposed to water even for a short time. Many studies have been conducted to solve the water sensitivity of MDF cements for over 30 years. In this study, production, basic properties and the current state of the art of MDF cements are explained, and the future research works are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-102
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of International Structural Engineering and Construction
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Event1st European-Mediterranean Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction, EURO-MED-SEC-1 2016 - Istanbul, Turkey
Duration: 24 May 201629 May 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 ISEC Press.


  • Calcium aluminate cement
  • Cement
  • MDF composites
  • Polymer
  • PVA
  • Water sensitivity


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