## Abstract

Energy-based seismic design is being rapidly developed and suggests that the seismic demands are met by the energy dissipation capacity of the structural members. Equivalent damping ratio is a measure of energy dissipation in structural members that accounts for the post-elastic behavior of the member and provides insight regarding the dynamic response reduction during a seismic event. The present study implements a machine learning algorithm to estimate the equivalent damping ratio in reinforced concrete shear walls at displacements corresponding to a 1.0% lateral drift ratio. Five different machine learning models, namely, Robust Linear Regression, K-Nearest Neighbor Regression, Kernel Ridge Regression, Support Vector Regression, and Gaussian process regression were evaluated in order to choose the model with the highest accuracy. Among all models, Gaussian process regression, a machine learning method with successful implementation experiences in civil/structural engineering related problems, is selected to identify the equivalent damping ratio. The developed GPR-based algorithm uses a database of 161 rectangular shear walls subjected to quasi-static reversed cyclic loading with geometry and mechanical properties commonly found in building stocks of many earthquake-prone countries. The proposed algorithm estimates the equivalent damping ratio for each specimen by predicting the cyclic dissipated energy and lateral force values as two dependent variables. The model validation results show a mean coefficient of determination (R^{2}) of about 0.89; a relative root mean square error of about 0.14 and a mean absolute percentage error of 10.44%, which is considered a substantially accurate prediction for such a complex problem. An open-source model and the entire database are provided which can be used by researchers and also design engineers. The proposed predictive model enables comparing the damping capacity of shear walls and the outcomes of this study are believed to contribute to the energy-based design or performance evaluation procedures in terms of predicting the energy capacity of shear walls.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 293-318 |

Number of pages | 26 |

Journal | Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering |

Volume | 21 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 2023 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.

### Funding

The study has been supported by funds from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project No: 218M535 and ITU-BAP Project No: MGA-2022-43379. Opinions, findings, and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the funding agencies.

Funders | Funder number |
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Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu | 218M535 |

Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi | MGA-2022-43379 |

## Keywords

- Equivalent damping ratio
- Gaussian process regression
- Machine learning
- Reinforced concrete shear walls