Lithium promotes long-term neurological recovery after spinal cord injury in mice by enhancing neuronal survival, gray and white matter remodeling, and long-distance axonal regeneration

Zeynep Balçıkanlı, Irem Culha, Pelin Dilsiz, Mehmet Serif Aydin, Nilay Ates, Mustafa Caglar Beker, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci, Halil I. Koc, Ahmet Yigitbasi, Mustafa Gündogar, Thorsten R. Doeppner, Dirk M. Hermann, Ertugrul Kilic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces neurological deficits associated with long-term functional impairments. Since the current treatments remain ineffective, novel therapeutic options are needed. Besides its effect on bipolar mood disorder, lithium was reported to have neuroprotective activity in different neurodegenerative conditions, including SCI. In SCI, the effects of lithium on long-term neurological recovery and neuroplasticity have not been assessed. We herein investigated the effects of intraperitoneally administered lithium chloride (LiCl) on motor coordination recovery, electromyography (EMG) responses, histopathological injury and remodeling, and axonal plasticity in mice exposed to spinal cord transection. At a dose of 0.2, but not 2.0 mmol/kg, LiCl enhanced motor coordination and locomotor activity starting at 28 days post-injury (dpi), as assessed by a set of behavioral tests. Following electrical stimulation proximal to the hemitransection, LiCl at 0.2 mmol/kg decreased the latency and increased the amplitude of EMG responses in the denervated hindlimb at 56 dpi. Functional recovery was associated with reduced gray and white matter atrophy rostral and caudal to the hemitransection, increased neuronal survival and reduced astrogliosis in the dorsal and ventral horns caudal to the hemitransection, and increased regeneration of long-distance axons proximal and distal to the lesion site in mice receiving 0.2 mmol/kg, but not 2 mmol/kg LiCl, as assessed by histochemical and immunohistochemical studies combined with anterograde tract tracing. Our results indicate that LiCl induces long-term neurological recovery and neuroplasticity following SCI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1012523
JournalFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Balçıkanlı, Culha, Dilsiz, Aydin, Ates, Beker, Baltaci, Koc, Yigitbasi, Gündogar, Doeppner, Hermann and Kilic.

Keywords

  • axonal plasticity
  • axonal regeneration
  • motor coordination
  • neurological recovery
  • spinal cord hemitransection
  • spinal cord trauma

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