Key characteristics of generic bond graphs for planetary gears

Gert Helge Geitner*, Guven Komurgoz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper deals with generalized power flow models of compound planetary gear trains based on standard planetary gears. In this context, the Bond Graph approach provides an optimal tool for a large variety of structures. Starting with compound gears based on two standard planetary gears, two kinds of parameter definitions are discussed and two specifications for power ratio and efficiency are compared. Next, the influence of elastic shaft connections is clarified. Essential methods for these findings are the use of symmetry and the definition of sub-systems and, if applicable, of scalar or vectorial models. The second part deals with the effect of the number of constraints on constructions based on three standard planetary gears. Typical consequences, such as the number of free running elements, of complete Willis equations or of self-locking impacts, are systemized and illustrated by means of reference instances. It is shown by example that constructions featuring five external shafts would avoid such effects. Corresponding outcomes for the equivalent dynamic system equations, the parameter definitions and the Bond Graph modelling are given.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105082
JournalMechanism and Machine Theory
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Bond graph model
  • Compound
  • Constraints
  • Epicyclic
  • Features
  • Gear train
  • Key characteristics
  • Planetary


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