Investigation of CVD graphene as-grown on Cu foil using simultaneous scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy

Majid Fazeli Jadidi, Umut Kamber, Oguzhan Gürlü, H. Özgür Özer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of graphene reveal either a triangular or honeycomb pattern at the atomic scale depending on the imaging parameters. The triangular patterns at the atomic scale are particularly difficult to interpret, as the maxima in the images could be every other carbon atom in the six-fold hexagonal array or even a hollow site. Carbon sites exhibit an inequivalent electronic structure in HOPG or multilayer graphene due to the presence of a carbon atom or a hollow site underneath. In this work, we report small-amplitude, simultaneous STM/AFM imaging using a metallic (tungsten) tip, of the graphene surface as-grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu foils. Truly simultaneous operation is possible only with the use of small oscillation amplitudes. Under a typical STM imaging regime the force interaction is found to be repulsive. Force-distance spectroscopy revealed a maximum attractive force of about 7 nN between the tip and carbon/hollow sites. We obtained different contrast between force and STM topography images for atomic features. A honeycomb pattern showing all six carbon atoms is revealed in AFM images. In one contrast type, simultaneously acquired STM topography revealed hollow sites to be brighter. In another, a triangular array with maxima located in between the two carbon atoms was acquired in STM topography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2953-2959
Number of pages7
JournalBeilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Jadidi et al.


We gratefully acknowledge TÜBITAK funding through 1003 program with Project no. 114F036. H.Ö.Ö thanks Nanomag-netics Inst. Ltd. for the SPM Control Unit.

FundersFunder number
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştirma Kurumu114F036


    • Atomic force microscopy
    • CVD graphene
    • Scanning tunneling microscopy
    • Simultaneous operation
    • Small amplitude


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